The term miscegenation has been used since the 19th century to refer to interracial marriage and interracial sexual relations,  and more generally to the process of genetic admixture. Historically, the term has been used in the context of laws banning interracial marriage and sex, known as anti-miscegenation laws.
In the present day, the word miscegenation is avoided by many scholars, because the term suggests a concrete biological phenomenon, rather than a categorization imposed on certain relationships. The term's historical use in contexts that typically implied disapproval is also a reason why more unambiguously neutral terms such as interracialinterethnic or cross-cultural are more common in contemporary usage.
These words, dating a white south african girl, much older than the term miscegenationare derived from the Late Latin mixticius for "mixed", which is also the root of the Spanish word mestizo. These non-English terms for "race-mixing" are not considered as offensive as "miscegenation", although they have historically been tied to the caste system casta that dating a white south african girl established during the colonial era in Spanish-speaking Latin America.
Some groups in South America, however, consider the use of the word mestizo offensive because it was used during the times of the colony to refer specifically to the mixing between the conquistadores and the indigenous people. Today, the mixes among races and ethnicities are diverse, so it is considered preferable to use the term "mixed-race" or simply "mixed" mezcla. In Portuguese-speaking Latin America i. Intermarriage occurred significantly from the very first settlements, with their descendants achieving high rank in government and society.
Conversely, people classified in censuses as black, brown "pardo" or indigenous have disadvantaged social indicators in comparison to the white population.
The concept of miscegenation is tied to concepts of racial difference. As the different connotations and etymologies of miscegenation and mestizaje suggest, definitions of race"race mixing" and multiraciality have diverged globally as well as historicallydepending on changing social circumstances and cultural perceptions.
Mestizo are people of mixed white and indigenous, usually Amerindian ancestry, who do not self-identify as indigenous peoples or Native Americans. The differences between related terms and words which encompass aspects of racial admixture show the impact of different hugh grant dating and cultural factors leading to changing social interpretations of race and ethnicity.
Thus the Comte de Montlosierin exile during the French Revolutionequated class difference in 18th-century France with racial difference. Borrowing Boulainvilliers ' discourse on the " Nordic race " as being the French aristocracy that invaded the plebeian "Gauls", he showed his contempt for the lowest social classthe Third Estatecalling it "this new people born of slaves Miscegenation comes from the Latin miscere"to mix" and genus"kind".
The word was coined in the U. The reference to genus was made to emphasize the supposedly distinct biological differences between whites and non-whites, though all humans belong to the same genusHomoand the same speciesHomo sapiens.
The pamphlet was entitled Miscegenation: The pamphlet was a hoax, concocted by Democratsto discredit the Republicans by imputing to them what were then radical views that offended against the attitudes of the vast majority of whites, including those who opposed slavery. There was already much opposition to the war effort. The pamphlet and variations on it were reprinted widely in both the north and south by Democrats and Confederates.
Only in November was the pamphlet exposed as a hoax. By then, the word miscegenation had entered the common language of the day as a popular buzzword in political and social discourse.
The issue of miscegenation, raised by the opponents of Abraham Lincolnfeatured prominently in the election campaign of In the United States, miscegenation has referred primarily to the intermarriage between whites and non-whites, especially blacks. Before the publication of Miscegenationthe word amalgamationborrowed from metallurgyhad been in use as a general term for ethnic and racial intermixing.
A contemporary usage of this metaphor was that of Ralph Waldo Emerson 's private vision in of America as an ethnic and racial smelting-pot, a variation on the concept of the melting pot. Opinions in the U. S on the desirability of such intermixing, including that between white Protestants and Irish Catholic immigrants, were divided.
The term miscegenation was coined to refer specifically to the intermarriage of blacks and whites, with the intent of galvanising opposition to the war. Laws banning "race-mixing" were enforced in certain U. All these laws primarily banned marriage between persons of different racially or ethnically defined groups, which was termed "amalgamation" or "miscegenation" in the U. The laws in Nazi Germany and laws in many U.
In the United States, various state laws prohibited marriages between whites and blacks, and in many states they also prohibited marriages between whites and Native Americans or Asians. From until30 out of the then 48 states enforced such laws. Virginia that anti-miscegenation laws are unconstitutional. With this ruling, these laws were no longer in effect in the remaining 16 states that still had them. The Nuremberg Laws classified Jews as a race, and forbade extramarital sexual relations and marriage between persons classified as "Aryan" and "non-Aryan".
Violation of this was condemned as Rassenschande lit. The Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act in South Africa, enacted inbanned intermarriage between different racial groups, including between whites and non-whites. The Immorality Actenacted inalso made it a criminal offense for a white person to have any sexual relations with a person of a different race.
Both laws were repealed in Africa has a long history of interracial mixing with male Arab and European explorers, traders and soldiers having sexual relations with black African women as well as taking them as wives. Arabs played a big role in the African slave trade and unlike the trans-atlantic slave trade most of the black African slaves in the Arab slave trade were women.
Most of them were used as sexual slaves by the Arab men and some were even taken as wives. Sir Richard Francis Burton writes, during his expedition to Africa, about relationships between black women and white men: In South Africa there are big mulatto communities like the Coloureds and Griqua formed by White colonists taking native African wives.
In the former Portuguese Africa now known as AngolaMozambique and Cape Verde racial mixing between white Portuguese and black Africans was fairly common, especially in Cape Verde where the majority of the population is of mixed descent. There have been some recorded cases of Chinese merchants and labourers taking African wives throughout Africa as many Chinese workers were employed to build railways and other infrastructural projects in Africa.
These labour groups were made up completely of men with very few Chinese women coming to Africa. Many of their offsprings have gained prominent positions in Africa. Jean Pingthe son of a Chinese trader and a black Gabonese mother, became the deputy prime minister as well as the foreign minister of Gabon and was the Chairperson of the Commission of the African Union from to Nicolas Grunitzkywho was the son of a white German father and a Togolese mother, became the second president of Togo after a coup.
Indian men, who have long been traders in East Africasometimes married among local African women. These interracial unions were mostly unilateral marriages between Indian men and East African women. In the late 19th to early 20th century, Chinese men in Mauritius married Indian women due to a lack of Chinese women and the higher numbers of Indian women on the island.
However, due to the lack of Chinese females entering the country, the Chinese men eventually established sexual unions with Indian women. Eventually their attitudes changed as well and Chinese men established sexual relationships with Indian women.
In the last years, various ethnic groups AfricansChineseEnglishFrenchGujarati IndiansTamil Indians have arrived and settled on the island.
There have been mixed race people on the island since its first permanent inhabitation in There was frequent intermixing between the Austronesian and Bantu-speaking populations of Madagascar. A large number of the Malagasy today are the result of admixture between Austronesians and Africans. This is most evident in the Mikea, who are also the last known Malagasy population to still practice a hunter-gatherer lifestyle.
Additional information is that most of the African admixture is patrilineal while most of the Austronesian admixture is matrilineal. This means that the majority of the intermixing were between black African males and Austronesian females.
Maximum-likelihood estimates favour a scenario in which Madagascar was settled approximately years ago by a very small group of women of approximately Intermarriage between Chinese men and native Malagasy women was not uncommon.
For example, the census found 1, "irregular" Chinese-Malagasy unions and legitimate, i. Children were registered by their mothers under a Malagasy name. Historically, "race mixing" between black and white people was taboo in the United States. So-called anti-miscegenation lawsbarring blacks and whites from marrying or having sex, were established in colonial America as early as Thomas Jefferson 's policy proposal for dealing with Native Americans was "to let our settlements and theirs meet and blend together, to intermix, and become one people.
The historical taboo among American whites surrounding white-black relationships can be seen as a historical consequence of the oppression and racial segregation of African-Americans.
The first laws banning interracial marriage were introduced in the late 17th century in the slave-holding colonies of Virginia and Maryland Later these laws also spread to colonies and states where slavery did not exist.
It has also been argued [ by whom? The bans in Virginia and Maryland were established at a time when slavery was not yet fully institutionalized. At the time, most forced laborers on the plantations were predominately white indentured servants.
Some historians have suggested that the at-the-time unprecedented laws banning interracial marriage were originally invented by planters as a divide dating a white south african girl rule tactic after the uprising of servants in Bacon's Rebellion. According to this theory, the ban on interracial marriage was issued to split up the racially mixed, increasingly mixed-race labour force into whites, who were given their freedom, and blacks, who were later treated as slaves rather than as indentured servants.
By forbidding interracial marriage, it became possible to keep these two new groups separated and prevent a new rebellion.
Inthere was considerable controversy in Arizona when an Asian-Indian farmer B. Singh married the sixteen-year-old daughter of one of his white tenants. However, during slavery many white American men and women did conceive children with black partners. These children automatically became slaves if the mother was a slave or were born free if the mother was free, as slavery was matrilineal. Many children of these unions formed enclaves under names such as Colored and Gens de couleuretc.
The Motion Picture Production Code ofalso known as Hays Codedating a white south african girl, explicitly stated that the depiction of "miscegenation The plaintiffs in Loving v. VirginiaMildred Jeter and Richard Loving became the historically most prominent interracial couple in the US through their legal struggle against this act. Throughout American history, there has been frequent mixing between Native Americans and black Africans.
When Native Americans invaded the European colony of Jamestown, Virginia inthey killed the Europeans but took the African slaves as captives, gradually integrating them. Interracial relationships occurred between African Americans and members of other tribes along coastal states. During the transitional period of Africans becoming the primary race enslaved, Native Americans were sometimes enslaved with them.
Africans and Native Americans worked together, some even intermarried and had mixed children. The relationship between Africans and Native-Americans was seen as a threat to Europeans and European-Americans, who actively tried to divide Native-Americans and Africans and put them against each other. During the 18th Century, some Native American women turned to freed or runaway African men due to a major decline in the male population in Native American villages.
This list of "Afrikanerisms" comprises slang words and phrases influenced by Afrikaans and other African languages. Typical users include people with Afrikaans as their first language but who speak English as a second language and people living in areas where the population speaks both English and Afrikaans.
These terms do not occur in formal South African English. Note when the letter "g" is either the first or last letter of the word or syllable, it is pronounced as an unvoiced velar fricative in the back of the throat. Note, words ending in "-ng" are pronounced identical to those in English. Note, in most cases of plurals ending in -nde, the "d" falls away in the informal pronunciation and spelling and the "n" is duplicated in sound and re-positioned within the degrees of comparison.
In singular words' syllables ending in "-d", "-nd" and "-heid", the "d" is always pronounced as a "t". Note, the English term slang is used strictly in its English pronunciation in context, as the Afrikaans word of the same spelling though pronounced as "slung" translates as "snake". Fanakalo fanagalo also refers to when people of non-Zulu origin attempt to speak Zulu without the proper pronunciation and throat sounds.
Fanakalo in Zulu literally means "same as this" — fana — same, ka — as, lo — this. The following lists slang borrowings from the Nguni Bantu languages which include Zulu and Xhosa. They typically occur in use in South Africa's townships , but some have become increasingly popular amongst white youth. Unless otherwise noted these words do not occur in formal South African English. The following slang words used in South African originated in other parts of the Commonwealth of Nations and subsequently came to South Africa.
The majority of Coloureds in South Africa speak Afrikaans. Those who speak English use the equivalent English words as slang. Some words are shared with Coloured slang, such as pozzie in Durban and let's waai. Slang developed in the s to allow the speakers to converse in public without drawing attention — usually referring to girls' names often with the first letter in common with the intended meaning: Jinne man, just put on your tekkies and your costume, don't be dof!
We're going to walk to the beach and then go for a swim, if you want to come with you better hurry up, china. Ag nee, I stepped on a shongololo, I just bought new tekkies the other day!
You know what, lets just forget about the beach and have a braai instead, all we need is some meat, mieliepap, some cooldrinks, maybe a brinjal and some other veggies. And if someone can bring some biscuits for a banofi pie that would be great. I'm warning you my dad won't tolerate any gesuipery, he'll klap you stukkend! He was tuning me just now from his bakkie my bokkie is a soutie and a rooinek.
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Neal Afrikanerisms. This list of "Afrikanerisms" comprises slang words and phrases influenced by Afrikaans and other African languages. Typical users include people with Afrikaans as their first language but who speak English as a second language and people living in areas where the population speaks both English and Afrikaans. Welcome to the Cumtree, South Africa's premier adult site for free adult classifieds and sex hook ups,women looking for men, free online dating and personal ads.